According to the Times Higher Education World University Ranking … They also failed to mention that no serious historian believes that the tomb so designated is really that of an emperor named Jimmu. A long-term member of the revisionist movement is English literature scholar Watanabe Shōichi. At the Feb. 19-22 ordinary plenary assembly of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of Japan (CBCJ), 16 bishops decided the Japan Catholic Seminary, which has campuses in both cities, would be separated into two … In April 2016, the Emperor and Empress visited the alleged site of Jimmu’s tomb, which had been designated as a “historic site” during the process of constructing the historical narrative of the nation in the late nineteenth century. : 206). What are the characteristics of contemporary Japanese nationalism? Nationalism is evident in European countries' colonial expansion. A round 5,000 Japanese nationalists assembled in Tokyo on November 6 to demonstrate against China and to protest Tokyo’s cautious approach to a territorial dispute between China and Japan. Start with the breaking story and then go … In his most recent book, he offers readers a wide range of conspiracy theories, praising Prime Minister Abe and Russian President Vladimir Putin as “flag-bearers of nationalism” while criticizing European governments as well as the U.S. as promoters of globalization and enemies of Japan (Watanabe and Mabuchi 2014: 142). Its objections were ignored and a close ally of Abe Shinzō, Shimomura Hakubun, was appointed Minister of Education in 2012 to oversee the introduction of morals education in schools. Saaler 2005). no academic discipline called “morals,”), as well as with the problems posed by the growing internationalization and diversification of classes, particularly in Japan’s largest cities (see the analysis of morals textbooks in use in Tsuruta 2014). While many nations have succeeded in using nationalism to develop, this same nationalism has also generated forms of exclusivism and competition that make it hard to resolve shared global problems. Karl von Eisendecher in Meiji Japan (in German and Japanese, 2007) and of Under Eagle Eyes: Lithographs, Drawings and Photographs from the Prussian Expedition to Japan, 1860-61 (in German, Japanese, and English, 2011). A major lobby behind this development is the KKK under the leadership of Yagi and yet another group spawned by the society, the Association of Experts for the Promotion of Moral Education (Dōtoku Kyōiku o Susumeru Yūshikisha no Kai), presided over by Watanabe Shōichi15. In Japan, the 1870s saw the creation of the cult of Jimmu, the legendary first Emperor (Tennō) of Japan (Brownlee 1997). Asia Japan's 'nationalist' school books teach a different view of history. : 111; 136; cf. 3, May 27, 2013. 146-155.Kato, Norihiro (2014), “Japan’s right-wing stirrings,” The New York Times, 12 February 2014, p. 3.Kitaoka, Shin’ichi (2001), “Is Nationalism Intensifying in Japan?”, Journal of Japanese Trade and Industry 20/1, pp. On that day, the foundation of … NAGANO, Japan - Two-time defending Olympic men's champion Yuzuru Hanyu delivered a dramatic and nearly flawless free skate on Saturday to win his first Japan national championship in five years. In a similar way, in France statues to Vercingetorix, the celebrated opponent of Julius Cesar in the Gallic Wars (58-52 BCE), were erected around the same time. 34-49.NYT (New York Times) Editorial Board, “Risky Nationalism in Japan,” The New York Times, 26 December 2013.Penney, Matthew (2013), “The Abe Cabinet – An Ideological Breakdown,” Internet:, Ernest (1967) [1882], “Qu’est-ce qu’une nation?” Vogt, Hannah (ed. Hence, with 6001 national infections yesterday, it is clear that the central government is extremely slow in responding to the crisis. They also criticize the couple’s attempts to contribute to reconciliation efforts with Japan’s neighbors and their desire to draw closer to the people, expressing dismay at the fact that Princess Masako had insisted that their daughter, Princess Aiko, queue – like a commoner – during a 2006 visit to Tokyo Disneyland. Mill 1958 [1861]). Mullins 2012b). Diss., University of Toronto.Wakasa Kazutomo (2015a), Rekishi sensō no shōtai. Japan’s choices in a changing Asia will define the region’s future and will have tremendous impact on U.S. policy in Asia. 1-1 of 1. 8-11.Smith, Anthony (1996), “The Resurgence of Nationalism? Tonight. No discussion of neonationalist writers would be complete without a mention of Sakurai Yoshiko, who has spearheaded the revisionist movement since the 1990s. In particular, the harsh criticism of the DPJ as a treacherous “government selling out Japan” (baikoku minshutō seiken, ibid. essay by General Tamogami mentioned above as being “of extremely low quality,” adding that “‘even a high school student’ can easily point out its mistakes” (Japan Times, April 14, 2016). Shops, restaurants and tourist attractions in Japan are generally open on national holidays, except on New Year. With the likes of Donald Trump and Vladimir Putin rising to power, the 21st century hasn't escaped nationalism. … The Japanese are a righteous people. See, for example, the textbook Arita Kazumasa et al. Also because westernization included colonialism, expansionism, capitalism, and nationalism. In 2021, the U.K. will deploy an aircraft carrier and its strike group to East Asia, France will dispatch a naval vessel to Japan and Germany will send a frigate to the Indian Ocean. ): Nationalismus Gestern und Heute. Since conservatives close to Prime Minister Shinzo Abe joined his Cabinet in a reshuffle last month, there has been speculation that visits to war-related Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo by Cabinet ministers may resume after a halt of 2½ years. List of Holidays in Japan in 2020 . Mostly cloudy. See the party’s website and Ōkawa’s PR video. Politically active in the neonationalist Sunrise Party (later the Party for the Future Generation) and a candidate in the 2014 Tokyo gubernatorial election, Tamogami is also the chair of a right-wing group called Ganbare Nippon! Further, a group of violent right-wingers, in a reaction to the Nishio/Kaji piece, attacked the offices of the journal WiLL, see here (last accessed 30 May 2016). Europe remains a battleground between nationalist forces, conventional governments and parties that cleave to broadly liberal positions. Following Japan’s defeat in World War II, the belief in the superiority of Japan with its “eternally unbroken” imperial line stretching back to the age of the gods was shattered. Many of the leading figures involved have close ties to Abe Shinzō and have been riding high since Abe came to power. These materials emphasize the importance of teaching Japanese mythology, without addressing whether this should be done in history lessons rather than in, say, literature. National Action Committee) founded in February 2010. Voters head to the polls today, after two years that have seen a revival – of sorts – of nationalism in Japan. In the final section, I discuss some recent attempts to instill nationalist attitudes in young people through middle-school education, especially the teaching of history and civics, but also through moral education. This period of Japanese occupation and subjugation saw an increase in Korean nationalist sentiment. China wanted to show off its vaccines. These materials also illustrate the KKK’s emphasis on Japanese superiority in almost every field. The reelected prime minister may now be able to fulfill his long-held promise to amend the pacifist Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution. Historians are almost wholly absent from the ranks of historical revisionists. Published by Ikuhōsha, part of the powerful Fuji Sankei Communications Group, the KKK textbook soon left its rival Tsukuru-kai publication trailing in terms of market share. In what seems to be an imitation of educational policy in the US, these included an emphasis on “patriotism education” (see Koide 2014, McNeill and Lebowitz 2008), an objective strongly pushed by none other than Abe Shinzō’s grandfather, Kishi Nobusuke, at least since the 1980s (see Fujita 2014: 59f) and, since the late 1990s, by the Tsukuru-kai’s Nishio Kanji, a scholar of German literature and author of a book titled “The People’s Morals” (Kokumin no dōtoku). Tokyo: Kamogawa Shuppan.Kaji Toshiki (2016), “Jimmu tōsei no chiseigaku,” WiLL 6/2016, pp. The idea of nationalism as a “civil religion,” emphasizing the religious foundations of national/ist thinking as seen in public rituals, symbols, ceremonies and the creation of sacred places and heroes, takes us in a similar direction (cf. Then, in the early 20th century, Japan annexed Korea. Tokyo: Ikuhōsha.Astley, Trevor (1995), “The Transformation of a Recent Japanese New Religion: Ōkawa Ryūhō and Kōfuku no Kagaku,” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 22/3-4, pp. From Overseas +81-50-3816-2787. Tokyo: Gōdō Shuppan, pp. Tokyo (AFP) Two-time Olympic figure skating champion Yuzuru Hanyu crowned his comeback from a 10-month layoff with a commanding victory at the Japanese national championships on Saturday. While the ethnic one pays attention to the roots or ethnicity, the civic one emphasizes the attitude to obey the law. Then, in the early 20th century, Japan annexed Korea. News From Jnto & Our Partners SEE ALL. Website of Tamogami Toshio as Deputy President of the Party of the Next Generation (2015). The “destruction of the country” (bōkoku) and the “selling-out of Japan” (baikoku) by “traitors to the nation” (baikokudo) – a group defined to include former prime ministers, academics, and journalists – are stock phrases used by nationalist writers like Tamogami and others discussed below. The ageing Akihito, 85, allowed his 59-year-old son, Naruhito, to take over a lineage reputed to be the oldest unbroken line of royals in the world. In late 2015, the LDP formed yet another internal committee to discuss historical issues, this time with the main focus on the Tokyo War Crimes Trials, condemned by many party members as an example of “victors’ justice” (see LDP press conference). It was then that the fear of communism created more nationalistic feelings, as well as that certain movements wanted Japan to rule East Asia. The changes to Japanese education brought about by the first and the second Abe administrations might lead, in the long run, to changes in public attitudes to nationalism. As historians Tawara Yoshifumi and Hayashi Hirofumi have shown, Abe Shinzō has been a key figure in the development of the movement for historical revisionism ever since (Hayashi et al. : 147). This feature also explains the emergence of State Shinto, a modern and politicized form of Japan’s indigenous religion, which combined ancient beliefs with mythological historiography to create a national discourse (Hardacre 1989). Recently, the list of “traitors to the nation” has been expanded to include Crown Prince Naruhito and his wife, Princess Masako. In reality it is akin to Japan’s version of the Tea Party: Like the Tea Party in the United States, it is a product of deep conservative anxieties about the future. (Middle school textbooks are always selected for a four-year period; see Saaler 2005: ch. See, for example, SAPIO 12/2014 (“Chūkan tainichi ‘rekishi sensō’”), Voice 3/2015 (“Nikkan ‘rekishi sensō’”), Voice 1/2016 (“Rekishi sensō, Nihon no gyakushū”). In addition, he is listed in the journal database Zassaku Plus as the author or co-author of 695 articles published in Japanese journals between 1955 and 2014. Today’s China has certainly not come that far. The policies espoused by Ōkawa and his party include doubling Japan’s population through child-friendly policies, a revision of the pacifist article 9 of Japan’s Constitution, an active military stance in face of a perceived threat from North Korea, and the nuclear armament8 of Japan. With suicide note and lawsuit, Moritomo scandal back to haunt Abe. Louisville, KY (40203) Today. Religion and politics Shinto and nationalism Japanese flags ©. Notwithstanding this existential threat to contemporary Japan, the arguments for historical revisionism have been more strongly advocated in the public sphere in recent years than ever before. In a video address at the opening of the three-day World Health Summit in … Section headings attribute to Japan “the world’s oldest ceramics” (p. 12), the world’s “most advanced technology” (p. 18), “the world’s oldest company” (p. 20), “the world’s highest level of education” (p. 22), “the world’s largest city, Edo” (p. 22) and refer to Japan as “the world’s oldest country” (p. 14). A further example is drawn from the religious sphere – Ōkawa Ryūhō, the founder and leader of the new religion Kōfuku no Kagaku (Science of Happiness) and its political arm, the Kōfuku Jitusgen-tō (Happiness Realization Party) founded in 2009 (on Ōkawa and the emergence of religious nationalism since the 1990s see Mullins 2012a and Astley 1995). Following his work with the HEC, Abe played central roles in numerous organizations promoting a neonationalist agenda, such as the Diet Members Liaison Committee with the Nippon Kaigi, the Diet Member Group to Consider Japan’s Future and History Textbooks (a group pressing for the elimination of “masochistic” history teaching), the Diet Members’ Roundtable for Discussion with the Shintō Seiji Renmei (“Shinto Association of Spiritual Leadership,” a group advocating a restoration of Japanese identity through the promotion of Shinto; cf. Given the importance of Japan’s military alliance with the United States, this move is a risky endeavor (the issue has become more delicate as a result of the appointment of Inada as defense minister in August 2016). Internet: Shinzō and Hyakuta Naoki (2013), Nihon yo, sekai no man-naka de saki-hokore. The coronavirus (Covid-19) crisis in Japan is at its highest level in early 2021. TODAY'S PRINT EDITION ≫ ... populism and nationalism, threatening to harm rights-based systems. While educational guidelines are extremely strict regarding political education in schools, which should be absolutely non-partisan19, a 2015 dōtoku textbook issued by the Ministry of Education itself clearly promotes the agenda of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party. In the early 2000s, attempts by the Tsukuru-kai to introduce its history and civic textbooks to Japanese middle schools ended in total failure. Advertised as a means of “making the Japanese DNA (sic) awaken,” the KKK history textbook itself is relatively anodyne in terms of its content, but the civics textbook shows a high degree of conformity with the current agenda of the LDP under Prime Minister Abe. Posted: Dec 27, 2020 / 12:51 AM CST / Updated: Dec 27, 2020 / 09:24 AM CST. The people shall refrain from any abuse of these freedoms and rights, shall be aware of the fact that there are responsibilities and duties that accompany these freedoms and rights, and shall not infringe the public interest and public order20. While the numbers claimed for Ōkawa’s sect makes his writings potentially explosive, his party’s poor showing in recent elections illustrates the limits of neonationalistic rhetoric in contemporary Japan10. 42). The second Abe cabinet has also succeeded in changing the textbook examination criteria (textbooks need approval by the Ministry of Education to be used in schools), resulting in the disappearance of critical content relating to Japan’s wartime history and an emphasis on, for example, very minor territorial issues (disputes with neighboring countries over the ownership of uninhabited rocks; see Tawara 2015). In the Korean context, this encompasses various movements throughout history to maintain the Korean cultural identity, history, and ethnicity (or "race"). While one section refers to the 2012 election slogan used by Abe’s LDP, “Taking back Japan” (Nihon o torimodosu), the book fails to clarify the precise meaning of this phrase. Economic development is an important—but not the only—goal that na… Recently, the team has been known or nicknamed as the "Samurai Blue", while Japanese news media during the 2018 FIFA World Cup still referred it to by the recently departed manager's (Akira Nishino) last name, as "Nishino Japan" 西野ジャパン, Nishino Japan). Japanese nationalism (Japanese: 国粋主義, Hepburn: Kokusui shugi) is the nationalism that asserts that the Japanese are a monolithic nation with a single immutable culture, and promotes the cultural unity of the Japanese. The committee “was placed directly under Prime Minister Shinzo Abe” and was “attended by party officials including policy chief Tomomi Inada,” one of the prime movers behind the establishment of the committee (see The Straits Times, 22 December 2015). A provision of the law establishes that when a national holiday falls on a Sunday, the next working day shall become a public holiday, known as furikae kyūjitsu (振替休日, "compensatory public holiday", literally "substitute … He concludes that the myths must contain historical truth, as the stories they record show a high degree of “geographic-strategic rationality” and make good sense from a geopolitical perspective (ibid. Since the intrusion by foreign powers in the late 19th century, Koreans have had to construct their identity in ways that pitted them against foreigners. Some are fellow politicians, such as Tamogami Toshio, former chief of staff of the Japanese Air Self Defense Forces and author of a provocative essay on Japan’s war responsibility5 that led to his dismissal from this post in 2008 (cf. But with Abe saying the issue has been settled and Japan … However, the claim that Japan should play a more independent and influential role in international relations and reclaim a position of global leadership emerges clearly in the book. If a national holiday falls on a Sunday, the following Monday is also turned into a holiday. Coverage of this event was awkwardly handled. Bellah 1967). Japan’s Holy War reveals how a radical religious ideology drove the Japanese to imperial expansion and global war. What to do, where to go, where to stay, restaurants, hotels, free WiFi and maps, plan your trip here, to travel with confidence and ease when you visit Japan In the discussions around the draft constitution drawn up by the LDP in 2012 (for an excellent analysis of this draft, see Repeta 2016), advocates of constitutional reform insisted that the granting of rights should be dependent on the fulfilling of certain duties. London and New York: Routledge.Sakurai Yoshiko (2014), “2700nen no jikū o koete,” SAPIO 9, pp. ... setting Japan on a course to become Asia’s first nation-state. However, Abe Shinzō’s ascent to power in 2006, and again in 2012, has changed the political landscape once again. What we see in the world today is ostensibly the latter: aggressive, top-down nationalism where individuals and groups have little organic agency or innovation. It’s backfiring. The origin of National Foundation Day is New Year's Day in the traditional lunisolar calendar. In a recent article on this issue, the Japan Times stated that “political debate is virtually nonexistent in Japanese classrooms.” (Japan Times, 3 May 2016) Many schools have banned political activities by pupils, even outside school hours. Nationalism emerged in East Asia as a result of the influx of Western-derived political thought in the nineteenth century, but its formation drew heavily on pre-existing notions of identity. In addition, at the time of writing, General Tamogami (not a member of the LDP, but, as we have seen, closely linked to LDP politicians including Abe) has been arrested “on suspicion of violating the election law by paying cash to campaign staff members who supported him in his unsuccessful bid for the Tokyo governorship in February 2014,” as well as using campaign donations for private purposes (Mainichi Shinbun Daily News, 14 April 201618). Nationalism doesn't have to be a dirty word. While the Japanese media remained relatively silent about the imperial visit, the English-speaking media reported intensively on the event, but failed to mention that Jimmu was a mythological figure (ibid. Distinguishing between elite maneuverings and popular attitudes, in this article I first identify what I consider to be the major topics of current nationalist discourse, and then introduce the chief proponents of strengthening of nationalist attitudes in society. Particularly harsh are the attacks by the authors on Princess Masako, a “strange existence” (fushigi na sonzai) in the imperial court who is “destroying the lifestyle of the imperial household” and lacking an appreciation of “the joy of preserving (court) ceremonials” (ibid. The March First Movement is noteworthy as it surpassed the Wilsonian ideas of that time. Tokyo: Seikō Shobō.Watanabe Shōichi (2012), “Kankoku no eiyū wa terorisuto bakari,” Rekishi-tsū 11, pp. In the case of pre-World War II Japan, the immediate effect of nationalism was to push the Japanese government to place itself on the opposite side of the prevailing international order. Across Japan, there are signs that the collective mood—long shaped by pangs of regret over World War II—is in the midst of a shift toward nationalism. Opladen: C. W. Leske.Repeta, Lawrence (2016), “Nationalism and the Law: Japan’s Tale of Two Constitutions,” Kingston, Jeff (ed. The Europeans tried to push their thoughts and ideologies on other countries, sometimes by force. Bishops in Japan have decided to once again divide the two-campus national Japan Catholic Seminary into two seminaries, reversing the merger between Tokyo and Fukuoka that took place in 2009. 5, Issue 7, July 3, 2007.McVeigh, Brian (2004), Nationalisms of Japan. 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